School Publications Terminology

5 W’s & HThe six key questions a journalist must answer for the reader: who, what, when, where, why and how.
adviserTeaches staff journalistic reporting and publication processes. Oversees the production of the yearbook. For journalistic publications, the Associated Press Stylebook dictates the word be spelled “adviser.”
alignmentThe position of elements on a layout in relation to other elements.
alternative copyInstead of a traditional feature story, this is an innovative way to draw in readers, improve the design and increase coverage.
apertureThe opening of a lens’s diaphragm through which light passes.
attributionWho said the quote, including the grade level and/or title.
axisThe vertical version of an eyeline.
bleedWhen content or imagery extends past the edge of the page.
brightnessThe overall lightness or darkness of the image.
bylineA line of text that gives the name of the writer.
candidAn unposed or casual picture of a person or group.
captionText accompanying a photo that tells the reader who is in the photo and what is happening.
closingThe final page of the yearbook with a design similar to the opening; makes a powerful and final verbal and visual statement of the theme or concept.
cmykWhen printing, ink colors Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black are applied to paper in layers to create a full color image.
COBStands for “cut out background.””An image that has a transparent background. See cut-out.
colophonA colophon is a statement, placed at the end of the yearbook, recording the names of the staff and printer, book specifications, size of the edition and other information about the production of the yearbook.
columnThe structure created when the spread is divided into a number of equal divisions, in order to design a layout with consistency.
contrastOpposing elements spark visual interest. Often used to enhance images when editing.
copyAll text on a page.
copyrightExclusive rights for the creator or owner of original literary, artistic or photographic material to make, distribute and control copies of that work for a specified number of years, as guaranteed by law. The use of copyrighted material without first obtaining permission from the copyright holder is copyright infringement and against the law.
coverA yearbook cover combines visual and verbal elements to introduce the theme. It should include the name of the publication, year, theme phrase, and
cropThe elimination of parts of a photograph that do not enhance the quality of the image.
cut-outA photo treatment in which the background has been cut away from the subject.
deadlineWhen content is due.
dividerYearbook pages that separate one section from another and introduce the section’s content. Typically includes section label, theme-related spin off spin-off, graphic elements, photo(s), caption, and sometimes a table of contents of that specific section.
drop capA design element that uses a large letter that appears at the start of a block of text.
editingThe process of improving content for optimal display. Photo editing, copy editing, and design editing are all important processes to include in yearbook production.
editorA student leader on the yearbook staff.
endsheetThe four pages at the front and end of a book that are pasted to the insides of the front and back cover, holding the cover to the inside block of pages.
external marginThe boundary established around the entire spread to provide a frame of white space along all sides. Text elements should never cross into the external margin.
eyelineServes as an anchor point for design elements. Should be place in the middle third of the spread, horizontally. No elements should cross the eyeline.
folioThe page number and word or images that might accompany it.
fontA set of text characters in a specific style and size.
golden ratioA mathematical rule that’s used to repeatedly create visually pleasing designs.
gridA framework of vertical or horizontal columns used for organizing and aligning content.
gutterThe center of the spread, where the yearbook is bound with thread and glue into the spine. Typographic elements should not be placed in this area, but visual elements can cross the gutter. Intentional placing at least one element across the gutter ensures the spread displays to the reader as a cohesive unit, instead of two separate pages.
headlineA large line of text at the top of a story that summarizes or introduces what it is about.
indexAn alphabetical directory of every person, team, group, advertiser and topic featured in the words and photos on the pages of a yearbook.
internal marginThe space between elements on a spread. Should be consistent between all elements. Use smaller spacing between photo groups and larger spacing between sections.
interviewA one-on-one question and answer session with a source.
interview questionA sentence worded to elicit information from a source about a particular topic during an interview.
justificationThe way text is placed within a text box: flush left, flush right, centered, or justified (flush on both sides).
kerningThe space between letters.
ladderA page-by-page diagram showing the yearbook’s contents. Typically includes which staff member the spread is assigned to and the due dates.
layoutA design for a spread or module in a yearbook. It accounts for all elements on a page.
leadThe opening sentence or paragraph of a story.
leadingThe space between lines of text.
marginBoundary established for content to stay within.
moduleThe yearbook equivalent of a sidebar, featuring topical content.
mugshotSee portrait.
openingThe first two to four pages (or more) of the yearbook which introduces the theme.
pageThe left or right side of a spread.
picaA unit of measurement utilized in typography for the widths of columns as well as other space measurements in a page layout. There are six picas to one inch; twelve points are contained within one pica.
pointA unit of measurement utilized in typography space measurements in a page layout. There are six picas to one inch; twelve points are contained within one pica.
portraitA photo of one person’s head and shoulder area only.
proofA sample print used as a final opportunity to make corrections before final publishing.
proofreadTo carefully check and correct any errors before a publication is published.
pull quoteA brief, attention-catching quotation, typically in a distinctive typeface, taken from the main text of an article and used as a subheading or graphic feature.
quoteWord-for-word statements from sources, showing a reaction to, an explanation for or an interpretation of an activity, event or issue.
quote format“””I am an awesome quote,”” Firstname Lastname (12) said. “
rule of thirdsA photographic technique to increase visual interest that consists of dividing the photograph into thirds vertically and horizontally, creating four intersection points. The main subject falls into one of the intersecting points, a little off-center in the photo.
sans serifFonts that do not have serifs. Typically considered modern and minimal.
secondary coverageSee module.
sectionCategorical separation in a yearbook. Traditional sections are Student Life, Sports, Academics, Organizations, Fine Arts, Portraits, and Reference. Modern yearbooks often use chronological sections by season, month, or even week.
serif“A slight “”tail”” coming off a stroke of a letter. Sometimes considered more classic or formal font style. Serif fonts are often used in lengthy sections of body copy because they typically result in easier readability.”
shutter speedThe time for which a shutter is open at a given setting.
sidebarSee module.
spin-offSection of a yearbook that has a theme-related title.
spineArea of the yearbook connecting the front and back covers. The name of the school, name of the book, city/state, volume number and year should appear on the spine in a way that reflects the theme.
spreadTwo facing pages in a yearbook, designed cohesively.
subheadA secondary headline. Should include a subject and a verb that adds detail about a story. Clarifies a headline that may be attention-grabbing, but somewhat ambigous.
templateA design created to be used as a pattern for production of future designs.
themeA unifying device that runs throughout a publication to communicate the personality of the students at your school this year. It is portrayed through the verbal and visual elements of the content on each spread.
title pagePage one of the yearbook. It usually contains at least one photo, graphic elements, the name of the school, school address, school phone number and year. It may also include enrollment, principal name, faculty and staff totals.
typefaceA set of text characters that share a common design.
white spaceThe empty space on a page that prevents overcrowding of elements.

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